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The COC Protocol – How It Works
Diagram of cell breaking down each part's capabilities

Reported anticancer mechanism1 COC Protocol Medication Refs
Reduces availability of nutrients to cancer cells (e.g. glucose, fats, and glutamine) Metformin,
Statin
Metformin (Rosilio et al., 2014; Saladini et al., 2019)
Statins (Babcook et al., 2016)
Stimulates and facilitates anti-cancer immune response Statin,
Mebendazole,
Metformin,
Doxycycline
Statin (Al Dujaily et al., 2020; Al-Husein et al., 2018; Yongjun et al., 2013)
Mebendazole (Blom et al., 2017; Guerini et al., 2019)
Metformin (Bahrambeigi and Shafiei-Irannejad, 2019; Eikawa et al., 2015; Kurelac et al., 2019; Pereira et al., 2018)
Doxycycline (Lucero-Diaz et al., 2016; Tang et al., 2013, 2017)
Places cancer cells under ‘metabolic stress’ Metformin,
Statin,
Doxycycline
Metformin reviewed in (Pernicova and Korbonits, 2014; Troncone et al., 2017)
Statin (Clendening and Penn, 2012; Huang et al., 2020; McGregor et al., 2020; Urbano et al., 2017)
Doxycycline (De Francesco et al., 2017; Petővári et al., 2018; Tan et al., 2017)
Modulates mitochondrial function in cancer cells Doxycycline,
Metformin
Doxycycline (Lamb et al., 2015a; Ozsvari et al., 2017)
Metformin reviewed in (Cazzaniga and Bonanni, 2015)
Disrupts cancer cell growth and migration Metformin,
Statin,
Mebendazole,
Doxycycline
Statin reviewed in (Altwairgi, 2015)
Metformin reviewed in (Chae et al., 2016; Jang et al., 2014; Seliger et al., 2016)
Mebendazole (Mukhopadhyay et al., 2002; Pinto et al., 2015)
Doxycycline (Fife and Sledge, 1995; Wang et al., 2015; Yang et al., 2015)
Induces programmed cancer cell death (apoptosis) Metformin,
Statin,
Mebendazole,
Doxycycline
Doxycycline (Fife et al., 1998; Onoda et al., 2006; Son et al., 2009; Song et al., 2014)
Mebendazole (Doudican et al., 2008; Mukhopadhyay et al., 2002; Sasaki et al., 2002)
Statin (Bayat et al., 2016; Cafforio et al., 2005; Fromigué et al., 2006)
Metformin (Gu et al., 2015; Kalinsky et al., 2017; Kumar et al., 2014; Yousef and Tsiani, 2017)
Blocks cancer cell DNA damage repair Doxycycline,
Mebendazole
Doxycycline (Lamb et al., 2015b; Peiris-Pagès et al., 2015)
Mebendazole (Markowitz et al., 2017), also reviewed in (Guerini et al., 2019)
Slows growth of tumor-feeding blood vessels (anti-angiogenic activity) Mebendazole
Metformin
Mebendazole (Bai et al., 2015), also reviewed in (Guerini et al., 2019)
Metformin (Orecchioni et al., 2015; Qian et al., 2018)
Targets cancer stem cells and may help make them more vulnerable to standard cancer treatments Metformin,
Statin,
Doxycycline
Metformin (Bao et al., 2014; Brown et al., 2020; Hirsch et al., 2009)
Doxycycline (Lamb et al., 2015a; Lin et al., 2018; Scatena et al., 2018; Yang et al., 2015)
Statin (Afzali et al., 2016; Bayat et al., 2016; Kato et al., 2018; Kodach et al., 2011; Li et al., 2017; Peng et al., 2017)

1 This table is a summary of some of the different anticancer mechanisms of action reported for COC Protocol medications by pre-clinical and mechanistic studies published in the medical literature. This list is not exhaustive.

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